Panel Antenna, Sector Antenna

A type of antenna commonly used in cellular base stations to provide directional coverage. From the outside, panel antennas are recognisable by their flat, rectangular shape, but internally they consist of a complex arrangement of multiple antenna elements. These elements, often formed as an array of dipoles or microstrip patches, work in concert to form a specific and highly directional radiation pattern, which is key to their role in dividing the cellular coverage area into 'sectors'. When integrated with an electronics module controlling the signal phase and amplitude across the array, the beam can be electronically steered, allowing for dynamic optimisation of the network. Simpler, smaller panel antennas are often used as Small Cell antennas, or as fixed wireless receivers.