Transmitting information over the electromagnetic spectrum involves a combination of technologies, techniques, and protocols that deal with encoding digital information onto a carrier frequency, combining multiple carriers into a channel, and sharing the channel with multiple users.

As demands for higher data throughput continue to increase, RF systems have become increasingly more complex over time. New MIMO techniques have evolved, using multiple antennas to communicate over multiple streams within the same carrier. With the increasing need to pack more transmitters into the same geographical area, modern wireless networks implement a range of Advanced Antenna System techniques such as beamforming and band steering.

Each transmission technique deals with a unique challenge in the communication of digital information. If you are familiar with digital signalling such as those involved in traditional wired communications, you'll recognise that many signalling techniques are no different. You can learn more about each technique by following its heading below.

Radio transmission towers - Kevin Fitzgerald

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Radio tower with many transmitter types

Information relating to the major bands used in RF communications can be found below. Each band is defined by the country's spectrum regulator and while each regulator works to harmonise bands between countries through the work of the ITU, the specifics of each RF band still differ between countries.

Within each allocation a band plan is defined which sets out the conditions in which users can operate radiofrequency transmitters. These conditions include:

  • Licencing and coordination requirements
  • Cha ...
MIMO antenna on rooftop

MIMO (Multiple-In, Multiple-Out) is a radio access technology that uses multiple transmitters and multiple receivers to communicate multiple streams of data over the same frequency band simultaneously.

The demand for mobile data continues to explode, with an incredible projected year-on-year growth of 46% (Statista, 2019). Mobile network operators are continually pressed to find new ways to get more data through the air. Cellular-band radio frequency spectrum is an incredibly finite resource and ...

Radiofrequency parameter explanations and education

The parameters and metrics used to quantify performance of radiofrequency hardware can be unfamiliar to those new to the industry. We've developed a series of articles to assist our clients in building a more fundamental understanding of the theory behind RF communications.

Each of the below articles correspond to a particular RF parameter that may be found on the technical specification or datasheet of an item.

Powertec have loosely aligned its datasheet reporting with the NGMN's BASTA reporting ...